The History of the Worshipful Company of Painters otherwise Painter-Stainers by Dr Alan Borg CBE is available for purchase at £30 + £5 P&P - please contact firstname.lastname@example.org
Guilds evolved during the Middle Ages when tradesmen who specialised in the same areas of work made informal arrangements amongst themselves for protecting their trades, regulating competition and maintaining professional standards. Artists joined together to form the “Paynters” Guild and the earliest reference to the Guild is in 1283 as appears from Ordinances recorded in that year. In 1466 an important set of Ordinances was granted to the Painters which were afterwards confirmed by Inspeximus, i.e. confirmation of a pre-existing grant. The Painters who decorated, gilded and coloured solid objects such as wood, metal and stone painted everything, from portraits to banners and barges and murals on walls and early records refer to the painting of saddles and the interior decoration of buildings, particularly churches.
Links with the Royal Court soon developed and the Painters’ Guild was at the centre of British cultural and political life and its first great figure was also the first recorded King’s Painter, Gilbert Prynce. He created a large panel painting of Richard II in 1394 which is the earliest surviving life portrait of a British monarch and which can be seen in Westminster Abbey by the tomb of the Unknown Soldier.
Also at this time, a separate branch of the trade, the “Steyners”, were producing decorative designs for pageants, processions, funerals and other ceremonies and created flags, streamers, banners and imitations of tapestry and they formed their Guild around 1400.
The early history of the Guilds was full of often violent disputes with other trades who claimed the right to do each other’s work. Most notably the Painters were in dispute with the Plaisterers, the College of Arms and the Stainers.In 1502 the Painters and Stainers, in the words of their joint petition to the Lord Mayor, were "knytjoyned and unyd to giders". The united guild was 29th in order of precedence of the City Guilds in 1515; 39th in 1532 and is 28th at the present time.
For more information about City Livery Companies see - City of London City Livery Companies
Alderman Sir ]ohn Browne, Serjeant-Painter to Henry VIII, died in 1532, and left to his brother Painter-Stainers his premises on the west side of Little Trinity Lane in the Ward of Queenhithe. This became Painter-Stainers’ Hall and its acquisition set the Company on the road to prosperity over the next 150 years. Hans Holbein, the most famous painter at Henry VIII’s court, was not a member of the Company, since foreigners could only join if they took out British citizenship, but his disciple, John Bettes, often regarded as this country’s first renaissance painter, was a member and he painted the earliest picture (1545) in the collection of the Tate Gallery – Unknown Man in a Black Cap. He was the first of a family dynasty of painters, all of whom joined the Company. His son, also John Bettes painted a portrait of Queen Elizabeth I and she approved of the Company because it maintained painting standards and made sure that the royal image was presented in the way she wanted it.
The Guild petitioned Queen Elizabeth in 1575 complaining of the practice of painting, particularly her portraits, by persons who had never been apprenticed. A subsequent petition was made to Lord Burghley in 1578 regarding the attempted control of arms painting by the Heralds and this together with the previous petition resulted in the Company receiving a full charter from Queen Elizabeth in 1581. By this time portraiture and landscape painting were important branches of the craft and the Company was sometimes called upon by the Crown to assess the value of the work done.
It is quite difficult to find a major British artist who was not a member of the Company in the Elizabethan and Jacobean age. We only have to look at the pictures of Masters and Wardens which hang in the Court Room, to realize that these men were prosperous pillars of society. The Potkin Group which shows Master John Potkin and his Wardens in 1632, includes to Potkins’s right the Upper Warden, Thomas Carleton, and to his left the Renter Warden John Taylor, who painted the only surviving life portrait of William Shakespeare. Known as the “Chandos” portrait, after a previous owner, this was the first portrait to be acquired by the National Portrait Gallery, when it was founded in 1856.
When the Royal Academy was founded in 1768 many artists joined that in preference to the Painter-Stainers’ Company, so, although the Company retained links with the fine arts and regularly elected the Presidents of the Royal Academy as Honorary Liverymen, it had to find other ways to develop. As just one example the Company played a leading role in the development and manufacture of wall-paper which was first mentioned in a Company document of 1626.
In this way it helped to define the nature of fashionable interiors for the next three centuries. and the following “Paper-Stainers” served as Master; Thomas Bromwich (1761), John Rowe (1763), Bartholomew Price (1764), Joseph Rowe (1771), John Gregory Crace (1879), Mawer Cowtan (1900) and Norman Shand Kydd (1957).
Company members also developed the decorative arts of marbling and graining, notably through the genius of Thomas Kershaw(1819-98), whose work,which was exhibited at the Great Exhibition of 1851,can be seen in Painters’ Hall and the V&A.
For some 130 years six generations of the Crace family were also at the forefront of Georgian and Victorian interior decoration and design and were involved with the Painter-Stainers Company, with three of the family becoming Master Painter; Frederick Crace (1851), John Gregory Crace (1879) and John Dibblee Crace (1884).
This dynasty included decorative painters, interior designers, gilders, draughtsmen, watercolourists and designers of furniture, textiles, glass and precious metalwork. They worked for Kings - George III & IV, noblemen - 6th Duke of Devonshire, Marquess of Bath and architects & designers – Sir John Soane, James Wyatt, Augustus Pugin, Henry Holland.
Their painted and gilded work is on the walls and ceilings of some of the country’s most prestigious buildings – Buckingham Palace, Windsor Castle, Carlton House, Althorp, Woburn, Longleat, the Palace of Westminster, the Royal Academy, Brighton Pavilion, Chatsworth, Taymouth Castle, Theatre Royal, Leicester, St James Theatre, London. Their designs were acclaimed at many international exhibitions both in England and abroad and the family business became the leading decorating firm in Britain in the second half of the 19th century.
John Gregory Crace and his son, John Dibblee Crace, both made a significant contribution to the history of interior decoration in the form of lectures and publications. They were also prime movers in the establishment of exhibitions at Painters’ Hall, a School of Technical Instruction for painters and other tradesmen and the Institute of British Decorators with headquarters at Painters’ Hall.
It is significant that the multi-million pound re-opening of the original entrance to the National Gallery in London, the home of so many masterpieces of foreign painting, was centred on the restoration of the original decorative scheme by John Diblee Crace.
The domestic history of the Company until the date of the grant of its first charter and sometime thereafter was largely concerned with the supervision of painting work executed by members of the livery working in the City of London.
In the 19th century the Company’s energies turned to education and it claims to be amongst the first to inaugurate training in art and craftwork. In 1877 it supported technical education in presenting prizes and medals to the City of London School, the Freemen’s Orphan School, the Commercial Travellers’ School and the City and Spitafield School of Design. The fund for prizes was maintained by each member of the Court subscribing 1 guinea a year, the deficiency being made up from the Company’s Corporate Funds. In 1893 a conference of painters and decorators in Painters’ Hall resulted in the establishment of a technical class in the Carpenters premises in Great Titchfield Street and in 1899 the Incorporated Institute of of British Decorators was formed in Painters’ Hall.
This enthusiasm for education and training carries on today and the Company fulfils its objects in support of the education of fine and decorative artists in three ways. It awards school prizes to budding artists in schools around the country and we also award “Painters’ Scholarships” of £5,000 per annum to 2nd year undergraduates at the Slade School, Goldsmiths, the City & Guilds of London Art School and Chelsea College of Arts to support the completion of their degree courses. Lastly, the Company are co-founders with the Lynn Foundation of the Lynn Painter-Stainers Art Prize which was established in 2005 to encourage representational painting in Britain. Full details of this national open competition, which annually awards £25,000 in prize money, and those pictures selected for exhibition over the last 10 years can be found at www.lynnpainterstainersprize.org.uk
A Charter was granted by Queen Elizabeth in 1581, however in the 1600s it soon became clear that a new charter was needed to protect the interest of painters faced with continued competition from other trades and regular infringements of their monopoly. The Civil War interrupted progress with representations to the Court on this matter and subsequently the opposition of the Plasterers meant the new bill to Parliament failed.
In 1684 Charles II decided he needed to tackle the growing power of local government and revoke the privileges of the Cities. As a result the Company decided to forfeit its charter to the Crown in the hope of securing something better and more far reaching in the long run. With the death of Charles II on 6 February 1685 the new monarch James II issued the long-awaited new Charter to the Company. The new Charter did not really resolve any of the old problems and most related trades simply ignored it and continued to operate as they had done in the past thereby challenging the Company’s long cherished monopoly position. With the exception of certain elements this new Charter enshrines the governance and operation of the Company as it is today.
A minor additional charter was granted by George VI in 1939 and another by Elizabeth II in 1981. The Elizabeth I, James II and Elizabeth II Charters are exhibited in the Court Room.
List of Past Masters and Wardens
In conformity with the Inspeximus and Charters, the Company is administered by a Master and two Wardens, who are elected annually on St Luke's Feast. The Master and Wardens are supported on the Court by Assistants, who are drawn from the senior members of the Livery.
Master - Colin John Goodman
Upper Warden – James Peter Francis Lee
Renter Warden – Darren Justin Isaacs
Master - Harry Sidney Evans
Upper Warden – Anthony John Ward
Renter Warden – Peter John Huddleston
Members who have served the Office of Lord Mayor
1922 Sir Edward Moore
1925 Sir William Pryke
1940 Sir George Wilkinson
1947 Sir Frederick Wells
1962 Sir Ralph Perring
1963 Sir James Harman
1964 Sir James Miller
1967 Sir Gilbert Inglefield
1980 Sir Ronald Gardner-Thorpe
1982 Sir Anthony Jolliffe
1985 Sir Allan Davis
Lord Mayors' Portraits
Published in June 2015 is a book called Lord Mayors' Portraits - Dame Mary Donaldson to Dame Fiona Woolf 1983 - 2013. This book explores the tradition of commissioning artists to paint portraits of Lord Mayors, looks at the wide variety of resulting portraits with comments from some of the artists and talks about each Lord Mayor's time in office. The scope of the book is limited to the period beginning with Dame Mary Donaldson and ending with Dame Fiona Woolf, the only two lady Lord Mayors, in recognition of the achievements of both women. Coincidentally, portraits of both women were painted by the same artist, Richard Stone. The portrait of Sir Allan Davis (shown above) and also by Richard Stone is included in the book, which costs £12 plus P&P and can be purchased from www.artandlife.co.uk/page01.php
The Company and Saint Luke
The ancient Guilds of the City of London, were originally religious Fraternities, each united underthe patronage of its particular Saint. Although more widely known as an Evangelist through his authorship of the third Gospel, as an historian by his writing of the Acts of the Apostles and as ‘the beloved physician’ and staunch friend of St Paul, St Luke was also credited, by long tradition in the church with the Gifts of an artist. Mediaeval works of art represent him in the act of painting the portrait of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and it need not be doubted that some element of truth lies behind the tradition. Accordingly the Painters’ Company adopted the patronage or guardianship of St Luke.
The tutelage of a patron saint may have lost some of its significance in the City Companies since the Reformation; but the Painters’ Company, by its attendance at Church (St. James Garlickhythe www.stjamesgarlickhythe.org) on St. Luke’s day (18th October) since 1683, has maintained much of the intention of that patronage and thereby keeps in mind those religious ideals which lie at the root of the Company’s activities.
The Painters’ Company is one of the three City Livery Companies which continues to maintain the ancient custom of processing to church on its Patron Saint’s day in full gowns and hats and carrying posies.
After the rebuilding of the Hall in 1961 the Company was presented with a bronze statue by Sir Charles Wheeler, President of the Royal Academy which depicts St. Luke painting the Virgin Mary with his emblem, the ox at his feet.